The landing of the first human on the moon is still considered a hoax

The idea of ​​the Moon landing was a hoax starting out as “hunch, intuition”, before turning into “true belief” —that the US lacked the technical know-how to get to the Moon. Kaysing actually contributed to the US space program, between 1956 and 1963.

He was an employee of Rocketdyne, a company that helped design the Saturn V rocket engine. In 1976, he self-published a pamphlet entitled We Never Went to the Moon: America’s Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle, which sought evidence for his convictions through crude photocopies and ridiculous theories. .

Despite the incredible volume of evidence (including 382 kg of lunar rock collected on six missions; evidence from Russia, Japan and China; and images from the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter showing traces made by astronauts in lunar dust), belief in the moon – hoax conspiracies have been developing since 1969.

Among 9/11 whistleblowers, anti-vaxxers, chemtrailers, flat-Earthers, the idea that the Moon landings were faked is no longer a source of outrage. It is just a given fact.

Podcast character, Joe Rogan, is one of those dubious ones. Likewise with YouTuber Shane Dawson. A sociology professor in New Jersey came to light last year for telling his students the landings were fake.

Now the conspiracy has to document how NASA was “so lazy”, that it used the same lunar explorers for Apollo 15, 16 and 17. Or how “they’ve been trapping us for years”; or to bring up the fact that there is “one thing I couldn’t think of …”

“The reality is, the internet has made it possible for people to say whatever they like to more people than ever before,” lamented Roger Launius, former Chief Historian of NASA. “And the fact is, Americans love conspiracy theories. Every time something big happened, someone had a counter explanation. “

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It turns out that the British also love conspiracy theories. Last year, the daytime TV show This Morning welcomed a guest who argued that nothing can walk on the Moon because the moon is made of light. Martin Kenny claims, “In the past, you saw the Moon landings and there was no way to check it. Now, in the technology era, many young people are now investigating on their own. ”.

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NASA Using COVID As Excuse Not To Go To The Moon… Again

by Mike Adams

Earth has a new temporarily captured object/Possible mini-moon called 2020 CD3 according to astronomers.

“When you’re born you get a ticket to the freak show. When you’re born in America, you get a front-row seat.” – George Carlin

A lot of jibber-jabber has come spewing from the crusty lips of U.S. officials over the past few years about NASA taking another trip to the moon. Bum-bum-bum-bum. Yessirree, folks, the Trump Administration said back in 2019 that its goal was to put American space crawlers back on the lunar surface by 2024. Of course, the simple-minded, the Walmart shoppers, the COVID-deniers and the monkey cages of local zoos, all went buck wild. After all, there is no more accurate representation of Duh ‘Merican Way than moonwalking before the foreigners, am I right?

To some of the population, the creation of a Space Force with plans to touch the moon again sounded like the right move for the United States of America, and the patriots raised their flags in celebration. To others, like myself, we couldn’t help but notice the lingering stench of a conspiratorial past. We felt the news was a rotten attempt to bamboozle the American public once again. Naturally, we had questions. The first was why it was taking so long to go back in the first place? If the United States could land on the moon in 1969 — defying the technological intelligence of the time — then why in hell’s holy name was it going to take four more years to do it again?

Perhaps because we never did it in the first place.

Many solid theories have come out over the years explaining why it is unlikely that the famed Apollo 11 mission ever made it to the moon. Even engineers like Bill Kaysing, who was part of the space program back then, have said that it is highly improbable that NASA ever achieved this. Some believe the moon landing was just a vast Hollywood production made to fool the American people into thinking about the strength of their country at a time when communism was considered a threat. All the government had to do was show the masses something neat on television, and that was that – it happened. At least most of them would be naive enough to believe it.

The truth is that the Americans had to beat the Russians to the moon to save face, and the history books tell us we did. But if the United States actually accomplished this feat some 50 years ago, did the new Artemis mission really need four years to go back? Naysayers and conspiracy theorists were skeptical, as always, yet patiently, we waited for them to prove us wrong. Well, NASA proved something to us alright – that they are still full of crap. It turns out that the planned lunar operation known as Artemis was probably just another long con. NASA officials are now conveniently blaming the coronavirus for chumping out on its long-awaited lunar return.

NASA quietly published a report this week, presumably hoping that the news would get buried under the madness of the apocalyptic holiday travel season, suggesting that the hyped-up Artemis moon mission slated for 2024 is no longer happening. It also added that any pipe dreams of visiting Mars in the near future, well, those plans have been kicked to the curb as well.

Doing its best to mask its incompetence through a lot of statistics and a few on-the-ground successes, the agency blames the bureaucratic swindlers in control of the mighty governmental machine for the setback. It claims not to have the money, emotional support, or anything else it needs to make another giant leap for mankind. So if you were hoping to witness a moon landing soon, sorry, pal.

For now, America is grounded.

“We believe the agency will be hard-pressed to land astronauts on the moon by the end of 2024,” the report reads. “At the very least, achieving any date close to this ambitious goal — and reaching Mars in the 2030s — will require strong, consistent, sustained leadership from the president, Congress and NASA, as well as stable and timely funding. Over the past decade, our oversight work has found NASA consistently struggling to address each of these significant issues, and the Artemis mission’s accelerated timetable will likely further exacerbate these challenges,” the report added.

But just in case the American people don’t buy into NASA’s excuses, the agency claims COVID-19 is more or less the real reason the Artemis mission is ruined. “Because it has permeated every aspect of NASA’s operations, the effects of COVID‐19 is a theme repeated in many of the top challenges,” the report stated. “NASA has had to prioritize which missions would continue and which would be delayed.”

Oh, Artemis Fartemis!

So how long will it take the United States to finally make it to the moon? Well, NASA says the price tag for such an endeavor will run every penny of the proposed $28 billion budget. I believe that a large chunk of these funds is required to develop technology that will allow astronauts to survive the Van Allen radiation belts and perhaps establish communication that is guaranteed not to cut out hundreds of thousands of miles (240,000) from the nearest AT&T cell tower. When your smartphone drops signal today, stop and think about how NASA was supposedly able to communicate with the astronauts of the 1960s using glorified walkie-talkies. Meanwhile, cell phones don’t even work on the International Space Station (ISS), and it’s only 200 miles above Earth. And nobody on this planet can use modern technology to phone the ISS. Yet NASA wants us to believe that old Buzz Aldrin and crew came through crystal clear from the moon surface!

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One goliath … lie? Why countless individuals actually think the moon arrivals were faked


Everything began with a man called Bill Kaysing and his leaflet about ‘America’s $30bn cheat’ …

It took 400,000 Nasa representatives and contractual workers to put Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the moon in 1969 – however just one man to spread the possibility that it was every one of the deceptions. His name was Bill Kaysing.

It started as “a hunch, an instinct“, before transforming into “a genuine conviction” – that the US did not have the specialized ability to make it to the moon (or, in any event, to the moon and back). Kaysing had really added to the US space program, yet dubiously: somewhere in the range of 1956 and 1963, he was a representative of Rocketdyne, an organization that assisted with planning the Saturn V rocket motors. In 1976, he independently published a flyer called We Never Went to the Moon: America’s Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle, which looked for proof for his conviction by methods for grainy copies and outrageous hypotheses. However, by one way or another, he set up a couple of perennials that are held alive right up ’til today in Hollywood motion pictures and Fox News narratives, Reddit discussions and YouTube channels.


Despite the unprecedented volume of proof (counting 382kg of moon rock gathered across six missions; substantiation from Russia, Japan and China; and pictures from the Nasa Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter demonstrating the tracks made by the space explorers in the moondust), confidence in the moon-trick connivance has bloomed since 1969. Among 9/11 truthers, hostile to vaxxers, chemtrails, level Earthers, Holocaust deniers and Sandy Hook conspiracists, the possibility that the moon arrivals were faked isn’t so much as a wellspring of outrage any more – it is only a given certainty.

The web recording boss Joe Rogan is among the sceptics. So too is the YouTuber, Shane Dawson. A human science teacher in New Jersey was uncovered a year ago for telling his understudies the arrivals were phoney. While Kaysing depended on copied samizdat to alarm the world, presently conspiracists have the subreddit r/moon hoax to archive how Nasa was “so apathetic” it utilized a similar moon wanderer for Apollo 1516 and 17; or how “they have been savaging us for quite a long time”; or to raise the reality there is “one thing I can’t get my head around …”

“Actually, the web has made it feasible for individuals to state whatever the damnation they like to a more extensive number of individuals than at any other time,” murmurs Roger Launius, a previous boss student of the history of Nasa. 

It ends up British individuals love paranoid notions, as well. A year ago, the daytime TV show This Morning invited a visitor who contended that nobody might have strolled on the moon as the moon is made of light. Martin Kenny guaranteed: “before, you saw the moon arrivals and there was no real way to check any of it. Presently, in the period of innovation, a ton of youngsters are currently researching for themselves.” An ongoing YouGov survey found that one out of six British individuals concurred with the announcement: “The moon arrivals were organized.” Four per cent accepted the fabrication hypothesis was “certainly evident“, 12% that it was “presumably obvious”, with a further 9% enlisting as don’t knows. Moon scam was more predominant among the youthful: 21 % of 24-to 35-year-olds concurred that the moon arrivals were organized, contrasted and 13% of over-55s. 

Kaysing’s unique questions are fuelling this. One is the way that no stars are noticeable in the photos; another is the absence of a shoot pit under the arrival module; a third is to do with how the shadows fall. Individuals who recognize what they are discussing have squandered hours clarifying such “freaks” (they are to do with, separately, camera-introduction times, how push works in a vacuum and the intelligent characteristics of moondust). However, until his passing in 2005, Kaysing kept up that the entire thing was a cheat, shot in a TV studio.

He was directly about that in any event. At the point when the Soviets dispatched Sputnik 1 in October 1957 (followed one month later by Sputnik 2, containing Laika the canine), the US space program was everything except non-existent.  in May 1961 – yet when John F Kennedy declared that the US “thought to subscribe to accomplish the objective, before this decade is out, of handling a man. By the mid-60s, Nasa was burning-through over 4% of the US government financial plan, however, while the Soviets were accomplishing more firsts – the main lady in space (1963), the primary extra-vehicular action, ie spacewalk (1965) – the Americans experienced different difficulties, including a launchpad fire that murdered every one of the three Apollo 1 space travellers.


On the off chance that you have ever been to the Science Museum in London, you will realize that the lunar module was essentially made of tinfoil. Apollo 8 had circled the moon in 1968, at the same time, as Armstrong commented, revising course and arriving on the moon was “by a wide margin from the most unpredictable piece of the flight”. He evaluated strolling around on a superficial level one out of 10 for trouble (notwithstanding the issues he had with the TV link folding over his feet), “however I thought the lunar plummet was likely a 13”.

That is until you contrast it and the trouble of keeping up obviously false to the whole world for fifty years without a solitary slip from any Nasa worker. You would likewise need to envision that 2019-time embellishments were accessible to Nasa in 1969 and not one of the 600 million TV watchers saw anything out of order. Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) is a respectable sign of what Hollywood enhancements could do at that point – and it’s very shonky. It really was more straightforward to film on the spot.

If we ignore “World war two aircraft found on the moon” – a Sunday Sport first page from 1988 – the moon-scam hypothesis entered the advanced period in 2001 when Fox News broadcast a narrative called Did We Land on the Moon? Facilitated by the X-Files entertainer Mitch Pileggi, it repackaged Kaysing’s contentions for another crowd. Launius, who was working at Nasa at that point, reviews a lot of striking of heads against supports. It did not merit giving it a consultation. Yet, when Fox News broadcasted that alleged narrative – expressing unequivocally ‘We haven’t arrived on the moon’ – it truly raised the level. We started to get a wide range of inquiries.” 

The vast majority of the calls came not from conspiracists, but rather from guardians and educators. So, with some anxiety, Nasa set up a page and conveyed a few materials to educators.”

A specific bogeyman is the Fox News narrative was a survey guaranteeing that 20% of Americans accepted the moon arrival was faked. Launius says that surveys will in general put the figure at somewhere in the range of 4% and 5%, yet it’s anything but difficult to express survey inquiries to accomplish a more attractive outcome. He refers to a scene in Christopher Nolan’s Interstellar (2014) in which a teacher advises Matthew McConaughey’s character that the moon arrivals were hoaxed to win the purposeful publicity battle against the Soviet Union. “It’s an expendable in the film. Be that as it may, it truly beat up a major reaction.”

Oliver Morton, the creator of The Moon: A History for the Future, accepts the industriousness of the moon fabrication isn’t unexpected. Given an unrealistic function for which there is loads of proof (Apollo 11) and a conceivable function for which there is zero proof (the moon trick), a few people will pick the last mentioned.  he says. But the deception story was just truly conceivable as Apollo never drove anyplace – there were no further missions after 1972.

James Bond needs to take a little portion of the fault. In Diamonds Are Forever (1971), Sean Connery busts into a Nasa office by the method of a Las Vegas club. A pursuit follows over a film set spruced up to appear as though the moon, total with terrestrial space explorers. In any case, here it’s more similar to a visual joke, a method of advocating a moon carriage pursue over the Nevada desert. When of Peter Hyams’ Kaysingian trick spine chiller Capricorn One (1978), the possibility that the legislature was tricking everybody was a serious issue. Here it’s about a Mars mission that turns out badly. The specialists select to counterfeit it and murder the space explorers (one of whom is played by OJ Simpson) to forestall them uncovering the reality. In the post-Watergate time, the possibility that the administration could lie on this scale had gotten substantially more conceivable.

Apollo denoted a defining moment between the idealism of the 60s and the mistake of the 70s. Turned into a typical abstain. yet that doesn’t mean it can win the battle in Vietnam, or tidy up downtown areas, or fix malignant growth or any of the things that Americans may have really needed more. The possibility that the administration isn’t generally amazing, it just imagines it is – you can perceive how it takes care of into the moon deception.”

Moon-scam hypotheses will, in general, be about what didn’t occur as opposed to what did. Conspiracists are partitioned on whether the prior Apollo, Mercury, Gemini and Atlas missions were additionally fakes, regardless of whether Laika or Yuri Gagarin ever constructed it into space, and what job Kubrick played. However, while the original of lunar conspiracists was inspired by outrage, nowadays it’s bound to be fatigue. The line among connivance and amusement is undeniably more blurred.

In any case, while disturbing for those included – Buzz Aldrin punched moon conspiracist Bart Sibrel in 2002 – in one sense the connivance thought is innocuous, at any rate, contrasted and deception about immunizations or mass killings. Morton takes note that it is one of only a handful, not many paranoid notions that aren’t spoiled by discrimination against Jews. Nor does it appear to be one to which Donald Trump, a definitive result of news-as-amusement, buys in. The elements of the cutting edge web have unmistakably not helped: look into Apollo recordings on YouTube and after a short time moon-deception narratives fire arranging in the autoplay line. Yet, there is little proof that Russian disinformation operators have spread moon connivances as they have hostile to vaxxing promulgation, for instance. Although looking at the situation objectively, it would bode well for them to do as such: a slick method of reestablishing Russian eminence while building up coherence between the virus war and the data wars.

Of course, the USSR had the way to uncover the Americans at that point; it was tuning in. “We were there at Soviet army installation 32103,” the Russian cosmonaut Alexei Leonov as of late reviewed. We trusted the folks would make it. We needed this to occur. We realized the ready individuals and they knew us, as well.”

The becoming stronger of the fabrication hypothesis is “something that occurs as time retreats and these functions are lost”, mourns Launius. A great deal of the observers are passing from the scene and it’s simple for individuals to reject that it occurred. Why should leave check false things? Folklores create and turn into the prevailing subject.”

Maybe the hardest thing to have confidence in is that people may have achieved something extraordinary – something that even drawn out the best in Nixon. “Due to what you have done, the sky has become part of man’s reality,” he said in his call to Aldrin and Armstrong on the moon.

We have less confidence in ourselves nowadays. Most moon conspiracists treat the entire thing as a joke, a hare opening to go down every once in a while. Maybe if Nasa re-visitations of the moon – perhaps as ahead of schedule as 2024, contingent upon Trump’s impulses – it will be supplanted in time by Mars tricks.

All things considered, you could see the diligence of the moon connivance as a commendation to the Apollo researchers. says, Morton. “It’s an indication that they truly care. They feel that Apollo truly made a difference.” actually the moon arrivals didn’t generally change life on Earth. Not yet at any rate.

• This article was altered on 10 and 11 July 2019. A prior form said that Nasa dispatched Alan Shepard into space in May 1961. Nonetheless, that flight was suborbital. Likewise, Nasa was burning-through over 4% of the US government spending plan during the 1960s, not over 4% of the nation’s GDP as a previous rendition said. This has been rectified.

50 Years On, the Idea of a Faked Moon Landing Is the That Hoax Conspiracy Theorists Can’t Quit. Here’s Why.

Buzz Aldrin punched a guy. ( October 22, 2020 – Mara Montalbano)
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It happened in 2002 when a man confronted the history-making astronaut on the street outside a Los Angeles hotel with a Bible, asked him to swear on the book that he walked on the moon, and called him a liar when he refused.

It’s been more than 50 years since NASA’s Apollo 11 mission brought Aldrin and other astronauts to the moon in what many consider to be man’s greatest achievement. Yet, a small but vocal group of “moon hoaxers” have tried for decades to prove that it was all an expensive ruse orchestrated by the United States government. The attempt to get Aldrin to validate these theories turned violent after several minutes of contentious questioning.

Aldrin declined to participate in this report, but was not charged with any crime because authorities said video of the incident shows, and witnesses said, he was provoked.

“He was being personally called a liar,” said Rick Fienberg of the American Astronomical Society. “[That] is different than saying, ‘There were no stars in the photos from the lunar surface, so I don’t believe you took those pictures from the lunar surface.’ That’s not what was being said. What was being said is, ‘You didn’t really go to the moon. You’re a liar.’

Fienberg said he doesn’t condone violence, but agreed it can be frustrating to deal with moon hoaxers. He once participated in a televised discussion with the man who is credited with creating the moon landing hoax movement. Bill Kaysing’s 1976 book, “We Never Went to the Moon” details his arguments to support a theory that NASA launched an empty rocket that fell back to Earth when it was out of public view. He also claims the video of the moon walk was produced on an artificial lunar landscape that was created at Area 51.

Kaysing and Fienberg, who was working toward his graduate degree in astronomy at Harvard at the time, agreed to discuss Kaysing’s theories on a local television show for WBZ-TV in Boston in 1981. “The astronomy department got a call from a local TV station that said, ‘Hey, we got this guy coming on our show saying that the moon landing was faked. Do you have somebody you can send over to debate with him?’” Fienberg says as he recalls how he reluctantly got roped into doing the show. “None of the faculty wanted to touch it so they said, ‘What about that grad student? He seems kind of talkative.’

Once they got into the discussion about Kaysing’s theories, Fienberg says he wasn’t fazed. “I realized that he was just raising a bunch of arguments that were easily debunked if you knew science and engineering and something about space flight,” Fienberg says, which made him wonder why anyone would entertain Kaysing’s theories in the first place. “The problem is that he had worked in the space industry and so he appeared to have some credibility.”

According to a tribute website dedicated to Kaysing, who died in 2005, he worked in the jet propulsion laboratory of Rocketdyne in the 1950’s where he was a technical writer, translating the company’s work into layman’s terms to procure government grants. “He was not a scientist or an engineer himself by training,” Fienberg said. “But he worked for aerospace companies, and as a result…he seemed like somebody who should be credible.”

Fienberg said the televised discussion did little to convince Kaysing to stop parroting his theories to willing audiences. While his book was never a best-seller and didn’t turn Kaysing into a rich man, it did get him on television and radio shows in the years following its publication. It also inspired some to take up his cause convincing others that man never actually made it to the moon.

Moon hoax theories have been a source of entertainment. Hollywood has taken these fringe ideas and turned them into money. In 1978, “Capricorn One” hit theaters across the U.S. and seemed to be a direct take on Kaysing’s book. The film starred O.J. Simpson and many well-known actors at the time, including Elliot Gould, James Brolin, Brenda Vaccaro, Sam Waterston and Telly Savalas.

In the film, NASA scraps the first mission to Mars by pulling the astronauts out of the spacecraft moments before it is launched into space. The astronauts are then taken to a secret television studio where they pretend to carry out their mission for the cameras. The plan hits a snag when the empty spacecraft burns up upon re-entry into the atmosphere and government officials engage in further coverup efforts, which include a plan to kill the astronauts. “It’s really great, great stuff,” Fienberg said of the film, which he admitted he enjoyed.

In the 1970’s, the timing seemed ripe for the moon hoax conspiracy to take root, as recent events caused many to lose trust in the government. “In 1978 we didn’t have Netflix and everything else so if you wanted to go out and get entertained you went to the movie theater,” Fienberg said. It was a major studio release that a lot of people went to see because of the lack of entertainment options available today.

“We didn’t have multiplexes with 16 theaters,” Fienberg added. “You went to the theater and you saw what they were showing and so a lot of people saw ‘Capricorn One,’ they saw Bill Kaysing on television, they had a recent memory of Nixon’s resignation and Watergate and the dismal embarrassing end of the Vietnam War for the Americans.”

While this conspiracy theory has longevity, it doesn’t have much public support. Polls consistently show around 95% of people believe the Apollo 11 mission was not faked. And those looking for more information about the Apollo 11 mission can visit NASA’s website.

Fienberg said moon hoaxers haven’t had any significant impact on the space industry, but that doesn’t mean that their work is harmless. “If you distrust the government and you don’t believe anything they say, and you distrust science, then you make poor decisions because your decisions aren’t based on reality,” he said.

As he learned during his discussion with Kaysing, Fienberg said arguing with conspiracy theorists seems to be fruitless. When confronted with these ideas, he says he tries to take an inquisitive approach.

“It’s a question of, ‘Why do you think that? Can you give me some examples of some evidence of that or other things?’ I don’t try to turn people into scientists,” he said. “I just try to get them to question what they’re suggesting or what they’re reading, what they’re believing, and some do and some don’t.”
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Moon landing was staged in Hollywood

There is ample evidence to support that Apollo 11 moon landing was real and theories behind fake-moon landing has been debunked time and again.On July 20, 1969, the Apollo 11 Lunar Module landed on the Moon. Many people believe the U.S. government, desperate to beat the Russians in the space race, faked the lunar landing, with Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin acting out their mission on a secret film set, located high in the Hollywood Hills. A key feature of the moon-hoax idea is that the Apollo 11 astronauts’ photographs don’t look right. For example, conspiracy theorists questioned where the stars were in the photo, the shadows in the photo did not seem right, and the American flag looked like it was moving due to the wind. However, History released an article where it debunked each claim. Moon-hoaxers also claim that the U.S had the technology to create the landing in a studio at the time because 2001: A Space Odyssey had come out a year before and showed realistic footage of a studio-simulated space. However, ‘Adam Ruins Everything’ released a video in 2017 explaining why that wasn’t true and refuted each claim. Vox reported that moon-landing conspiracy theories started when ‘We Never Went to the Moon’ was published in 1976 by Bill Kaysing. He is widely considered the father of moon landing hoax theories. He claimed that in the early 1960s when he had worked as a technical writer for Rocketdyne, a rocket design and production company, and the job had given him access to documents proving that the Apollo mission was a hoax. However, theories put forward by people claiming that moon landing was a hoax have been debunked time and again. The Washington Post released an article in 2019, on the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing. They reported that NASA spokesman Allard Beutel issued a statement saying a significant amount of evidence exists to support that NASA landed 12 astronauts on the Moon from 1969-1972. He also specified some of that evidence, including that NASA has 842 pounds of astronaut-collected Moon rocks studied by scientists worldwide for decades, one can still bounce Earth-based lasers off the retroreflector mirrors placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter imaged the landing sites in 2011. This conspiracy theory has been making rounds for several years, but it is baseless and false.

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U.S. Moon Landing Was a Hoax, Half of Russians Believe

Just under half of Russians think the U.S. moon landing in 1969 was a government hoax, a poll has found. In a survey of 1,600 adults in Russia, researchers also found only 31 percent believe American astronauts landed on the moon in the last century.

The moon landing, where Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first people to set foot on the lunar surface, took place during the space race between the U.S. and Russia. Both nations were vastly expanding their space programs, with Russia having become the first country to send a person—cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin—into space eight years earlier.

Soon after the moon landing, the Soviet Union denied it had been in a space race with the U.S., either claiming they had no lunar program or criticizing NASA’s efforts. Some politicians in America use the denials from Russia to claim U.S. officials had invented the race to justify the millions invested in advancing the lunar program. It would be decades before the Soviets confirmed they had been attempting a moon landing. In 1989, the New York Times published an article titled “Russians Finally Admit They Lost Race to Moon.”

Conspiracies about whether the moon landing was faked emerged in the years that followed the Apollo 11 mission. In 1976, Bill Kaysing self-published a pamphlet called “We Never Went to the Moon: America’s Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle” in which he set out claims against the authenticity of the evidence presented. All his points, such as the flag appearing to wave despite the absence of a breeze, have been debunked by scientists.

But the conspiracy stuck. In 1999 a Gallup poll showed that around five percent of Americans believed the moon landing was a hoax. Twenty years later, a survey by C-SPAN and Ipsos showed this figure had remained stable, with 6 percent of people saying they believe the event was staged. The poll showed belief was higher among younger people, compared with over 50s.

In Russia, support for the conspiracy was far higher. In 2018, Dmitry Rogozin, head of Russia’s space agency Roscosmos, was asked whether there are plans to go to the moon. In response, he joked they would go to check if the moon landings were real: “We have set this objective to fly and verify whether they’ve been there or not.”

The latest poll, by the Russia Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM), shows belief in the moon landing hoax theory is now falling. In 2018, 57 percent believed the Apollo 11 landing was faked. People aged 45 and over were most likely to believe it was a hoax.

The VCIOM poll, which looked at belief in conspiracy theories, covered topics including the safety of vaccines, whether the Earth was flat and whether aliens have visited Earth.

On the latter subject, 13 percent said representatives of extraterrestrial civilizations visit our planet but that this is hidden from the public by authorities. Twenty three percent say aliens visit Earth but hide from us. Forty eight percent said aliens either do not exist or do not visit Earth.

moon landing
Buzz Aldrin next to the U.S. flag on the surface of the Moon during the 1969 landing. Half of Russians still believe the landing was faked by the government.NASA/AFP VIA GETTY IMAGES

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51 years after Apollo 11, many still think Moon landing was faked; why the conspiracy theories don’t stand

Between 1969 and 1972, six Apollo missions brought back 382 kg of lunar rocks, core samples, pebbles, sand and dust from the lunar surface. All of the tests have confirmed that they did come from the Moon

 51 years after Apollo 11, many still think Moon landing was faked; why the conspiracy theories don’t stand

Fifty-one years ago, the historic Apollo 11 mission landed the first human beings on the Moon. An estimated 650 million people watched astronaut Neil Armstrong’s televised image and heard his voice describe the event, “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind” on July 20, 1969. According to NASA, the astronauts left behind an “American flag, a patch honoring the fallen Apollo 1 crew, and a plaque that read, ‘Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon. July 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all mankind’.” Though the first Moonwalker has died, conspiracy theories claiming that the Moon landings were a hoax and that they were faked, live on. How did the Moon landing conspiracy theories start and what are they?

When did the conspiracies begin?

According to reports, theories that the Moon landing was a hoax that the US government had staged to win the space race with the Soviets began to gain traction in the 1970s.

Bill Kaysing, a former US Navy officer, claimed that he had inside knowledge of a government conspiracy to fake the Moon landings. He wrote, “We Never Went to the Moon: America’s Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle,” in 1976 and many conspiracy theories about the Apollo Moon landings can be traced to this book. “The basic template of the conspiracy theory is that NASA couldn’t manage to safely land a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s as President John F Kennedy had promised, so it only sent astronauts into Earth orbit. Conspiracy theorists then argue that NASA staged the Moon landings in a film studio and that there are tell-tale signs on the footage and the photos that give the game away. They claim that NASA has covered up the elaborate hoax ever since,” writes Peter Knight, professor of American Studies, University of Manchester.

The rise of conspiracy theories has also been attributed to a breakdown in trust between the US government and its citizens. In 1971, for example, the Pentagon Papers showed that the government had repeatedly lied about the Vietnam war. In 1976, a House committee concluded that there was a high chance that there had been a conspiracy to kill John F Kennedy. “That Kaysing’s conspiracy theory took hold in mid-1970s America is in large part due to a wider crisis of trust in the country at the time,” says Knight.

With the 1978 Hollywood film ‘Capricorn One,’ the conspiracy theory got more steam. The plot revolved around the government deceiving the American public into believing that they had landed a manned mission on Mars. “It imagined that a Mars landing was faked in a film studio, tapping into conspiracy rumors that the Moon landings themselves had been directed by Stanley Kubrick. This suggestive myth is based in part on the idea that special effects had become much more sophisticated with Kubrick’s 1968 film 2001 A Space Odyssey, although still far from the capabilities that the conspiracy theories suppose,” explains Knight.

In February 2001, Fox Broadcasting ran a documentary titled “Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon?” According to an article on Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum’s website, after the Fox program first aired, NASA released a one-paragraph press release, “Apollo: Yes, We Did.” It said, “To some extent debating this subject is an insult to the thousands who worked for years to accomplish the most amazing feats of exploration in history. And it certainly is an insult to the memory of those who have given their lives for the exploration of space.”

While these claims were false and easily debunked, they have persisted to this day. Bull. Public opinion polls over the years regularly show that about 5-6% of Americans believe the Moon landing was faked, Roger Launius, NASA’s former chief historian, told AP last year.

Official crew photo of the Apollo 11 Prime Crew. From left to right are astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Commander; Michael Collins, Command Module Pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module Pilot. (NASA)

Debunking the conspiracy theories

One question that Moon-hoax enthusiasts often ask is why is the US flag fluttering on the surface? That would be impossible since there’s no air on the Moon, they say. The US flag is fluttering because it has a metal rod sewn into it to give it the appearance of moving in the ‘wind.’ “These flags had a horizontal rod inside to make them stick out from the flagpole. The Apollo 11 astronauts had trouble extending the rod all the way, and in still pictures, this creates a ripple effect that makes the flag look like it’s waving in the wind. In video images of the flag, you can see it only moves while the astronauts are grinding it into the Moon’s surface. After the astronauts step away, it stays in the same bent shape because of the partially-extended rod,” explains

No stars in the sky in the moonwalkers’ photograph is another argument. According to experts, the daylight on the surface washes them out, just like it does on Earth. The lunar landscape is brightly lit by the Sun, and astronauts were wearing white space suits that are highly reflective. To capture a bright object with a bright background, the exposure time must be fast. Stars are faint objects, and in the fast exposure, they do not have time to register on the film. “The shutter speeds on the astronauts’ cameras were too fast to capture the faint light of the stars, astronomer Emily Drabek-Maunder at the Royal Observatory Greenwich in London said. NASA used high shutter speeds to make sure the pictures weren’t overexposed from the bright light on the Moon,” says the AP report. Another popular conspiracy theory is not being able to see the astronauts holding a camera, so who took the pictures. This is because the camera was mounted on the front of the astronauts’ spacesuit.

People also say that Moon landing is fake because the shadows are not right, indicating that artificial light was used. But the problem with this theory is that besides the Sun, the lunar ground also reflects light. “In the Apollo 11 pictures, the sunlight is being scattered or reflected off the ground every which way, and some of it — a small fraction but enough to be able to see — scatters into the shadows,” Rick Fienberg, the press officer for the American Astronomical Society, tells This is the reason why in some pictures, one can make out a plaque that Armstrong and Aldrin left on the Moon even though it is lying in shadow.

Apollo 11 launched from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. (NASA)

People also ask why in all the pictures taken by the astronauts, the shadows are not black. They argue that if the Sun is the only source of light on the Moon, and there is no air to scatter that light, shadows should be black. American astronomer Phil Plait explains, “The lunar dust has a peculiar property: it tends to reflect light back in the direction from where it came. So if you were to stand on the Moon and shine a flashlight at the surface, you would see a very bright spot where the light hits the ground, but, oddly, someone standing a bit to the side would hardly see it at all. The light is preferentially reflected back toward the flashlight (and therefore you), and not the person on the side.”

Why do you see footprints in the pictures, but no marks from the lunar modules that landed there? There are footprints but no impressions from the modules because the weight of the modules was more evenly distributed than the astronauts’ weight, which was in their boots. Further, since the Moon has no atmosphere, liquid water or wind erosion, the footprints remain.

And there is more evidence. Between 1969 and 1972, six Apollo missions brought back 382 kilograms (842 pounds) of lunar rocks, core samples, pebbles, sand and dust from the lunar surface. All of the tests have confirmed that they did come from the Moon. “The six space flights returned 2,200 separate samples from six different exploration sites on the Moon. Besides, three automated Soviet spacecraft returned important samples totaling 300 grams (approximately 3/4 pound) from three other lunar sites. The lunar sample building at Johnson Space Center is the chief repository for the Apollo samples,” says NASA.

In 2009, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, returned its first imagery of the Apollo Moon landing sites. The pictures show the Apollo missions’ lunar module descent stages sitting on the Moon’s surface, as long shadows from a low Sun angle make the modules’ locations evident. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, or LROC, was able to image five of the six Apollo sites. “Not only do these images reveal the great accomplishments of Apollo, they also show us that lunar exploration continues,” said LRO project scientist Richard Vondrak of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, in a statement.

(source: )

Donald Trump unveils U.S. Space Force official flag!/image/image.jpg_gen/derivatives/landscape_900/image.jpg

WASHINGTON — The U.S. Space Force unveiled its service flag on Friday, when top Pentagon officials presented President Donald Trump with the sixth military branch’s official colors during a private Oval Office ceremony marking Armed Forces Day.

In photos tweeted out by a Reuters photographer, Trump is seen smiling as the Space Force’s senior enlisted leader, Chief Master Sgt. Roger Towberman, holds up the new flag representing the military service charged with carrying out the Pentagon’s space-based operations. The new service was officially stood up in December when the president — who championed the force’s cause even as some Pentagon leaders initially pushed back on it necessity — signed a law mandating its creation.

The brief ceremony was open only to the daily White House press pool, which includes a reporter and news photographer who share details of the event with other media members. The pool photographer, Steve Holland with the Reuters news agency, shared the photo from inside the Oval Office, revealing the black flag for the new service — the first new military branch in 72 years.

Among people attending the ceremony were the Space Force’s top officer Gen. Jay Raymond, Air Force Secretary Barbara Barrett, Army Gen. Mark Milley, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and Defense Secretary Mark Esper, who said the flag reveal was “a very historic moment,” according to a pool report.

Raymond, the chief of space operations, told Trump that the prominent star design on the black and platinum-colored flag represented the North Star, which “signifies our core value, our guiding light.” (source: )

Coronavirus food shortages beginning … but not why you think

It’s all about money. If the processing plants’ commercial and restuarant customer base is depleted, they will sit on their hands making demand go down, even though demand has actually gone up. It’s not like oil, where demand is reflected on population movement habits and a shift in workforce behavior. We have demand in food commodities that is false. Get ready.