How Moon Landing Conspiracy Theories Spread Before the Internet

by Matt Novak
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Conspiracy theories about the Moon landing have been around for years. Decades, in fact. And while it’s easier than ever to spread false stories thanks to the internet, the belief that humans never landed on the Moon is way older than the web.
How did people learn about Moon landing conspiracy theories before the internet? People of the 20th century had a strange and primitive technology known as books.
The 1974 self-published book We Never Went to the Moon by Bill Kaysing was the first lengthy discussion on the topic committed to paper. Kaysing, who died in 2005, was a technical writer at space contractor Rocketdyne in the 1950s, which led some people to think that Kaysing knew what he was talking about when he insisted that the Moon landings were actually filmed at a production studio in Area 51. People believed Kaysing despite the fact that he would sometimes admit he knew “zero” about rockets.
Kaysing didn’t have to work too hard to convince an already skeptical public that the Apollo space program and the first Moon landing on July 20, 1969 was a sham. Americans of the late 1960s and early 1970s were already living through one of the most disheartening eras of the 20th century, with everything from the Vietnam War to the corruption of Watergate leading the average person to distrust anything their government might be telling them.
The Knight newspaper company in July 1970 found that a whopping 30 percent of Americans believed the Moon landing had been faked. And a Gallup poll in 1976 found that 28 percent of Americans believed that the Moon landing had been staged by the U.S. government—pretty consistent findings throughout the 1970s.

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Kaysing thought he had a lot of reasons to believe the U.S. government needed to fake the Moon landing. First, he insisted that it simply wasn’t possible given the technology of the day. This argument was made through a lot of hand-waving and by suggesting that his firsthand knowledge from Rocketdyne gave him some special insight.
“As a witness to many rocket engine tests at the Santa Susana lab, I saw many failures, blowups and premature engine cutoffs due to incipient disaster,” Kaysing wrote in his book. “Even after the relatively modest Atlas engine cluster was accepted by the Air Force for use in the Atlas ICBM, failures occurred with repeated regularity.”
But his most damning evidence that the Moon landing was a hoax was perhaps the most easy to discredit. Specifically, Kaysing wrote, repeatedly, that the absence of stars in the photos taken on the Moon proved humans never went there.
“There are no stars in any of their pictures,” Kaysing told a New Jersey newspaper in 1977. “If they were taken on the moon there would have been some stars in evidence.” The suggestion was that this was some kind of oversight on the part of NASA and proved that it was all fake.
The reality? There are a lot of good reasons that you don’t see stars in the photos from the Moon. But people here in the 21st century probably understand that today better than they could in the 1970s. Anyone who’s used a smartphone to take pictures when there’s a single annoying light source can get easily frustrated. Astronauts are exposed to a lot more direct sunlight in space, so if you expose the photo using an appropriate aperture for the surface of the Moon, you’re not going to capture the relatively little light from stars.
If you set the camera’s aperture wide to capture the stars, you’d get something like this demonstration from a great debunker of the Moon hoax people by VideoFromSpace on YouTube.
Kaysing thought he had a lot of reasons to believe the U.S. government needed to fake the Moon landing. First, he insisted that it simply wasn’t possible given the technology of the day. This argument was made through a lot of hand-waving and by suggesting that his firsthand knowledge from Rocketdyne gave him some special insight.
“As a witness to many rocket engine tests at the Santa Susana lab, I saw many failures, blowups and premature engine cutoffs due to incipient disaster,” Kaysing wrote in his book. “Even after the relatively modest Atlas engine cluster was accepted by the Air Force for use in the Atlas ICBM, failures occurred with repeated regularity.”
But his most damning evidence that the Moon landing was a hoax was perhaps the most easy to discredit. Specifically, Kaysing wrote, repeatedly, that the absence of stars in the photos taken on the Moon proved humans never went there.
“There are no stars in any of their pictures,” Kaysing told a New Jersey newspaper in 1977. “If they were taken on the moon there would have been some stars in evidence.” The suggestion was that this was some kind of oversight on the part of NASA and proved that it was all fake.
The reality? There are a lot of good reasons that you don’t see stars in the photos from the Moon. But people here in the 21st century probably understand that today better than they could in the 1970s. Anyone who’s used a smartphone to take pictures when there’s a single annoying light source can get easily frustrated. Astronauts are exposed to a lot more direct sunlight in space, so if you expose the photo using an appropriate aperture for the surface of the Moon, you’re not going to capture the relatively little light from stars.
If you set the camera’s aperture wide to capture the stars, you’d get something like this demonstration from a great debunker of the Moon hoax people by VideoFromSpace on YouTube.
Another one of Kaysing’s claims was that acclaimed director Stanley Kubrick was probably involved in faking the Moon landings. Kubrick’s 1968 movie 2001: A Space Odyssey included some of the most impressive special effects work that had been done to date and it helped create the theory that Kubrick had actually directed the footage we know today as the Apollo landings.
“While ‘2001’ was being filmed, Kubrick and his crew consulted with nearly 70 industrial and aerospace corporations, universities, observatories, weather bureaus, laboratories and other institutions to ensure that the film would be technically accurate,” Kaysing wrote. “Had this been done for ASP without the cover of ‘2001’, much suspicion would have been directed towards those making the inquires.”
What’s ASP? According to Kaysing, that stands for the “Apollo Simulation Project.” In fact, Kaysing even points to the ballooning budget of the film as more evidence that Kubrick was in on the moon hoax, insinuating that the director was paid by NASA to stage a cover-up.
Kaysing’s book also included photos of hotels in Las Vegas—the place where Kaysing said the astronauts lived while they were supposed to be on the Moon. In fact, Kaysing suggests that the astronauts insisted on Vegas because guys like Buzz Aldrin, Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and their publicity “managers” wanted to live it up in style.
Hard to argue with that, right?
Another piece of “evidence” that Kaysing spends considerable time on throughout the book is the fact that the practice sessions that astronauts conducted look like a fake Moon landing. Admittedly, I made the same joke back in 2014 before I had even heard of Kaysing’s book.
And the photos really do look like prep for a fake landing. But they’re not. They’re just training. Obviously these photos have stuck around and are used on the internet as “evidence” even today.

Neil Armstrong practices using a video camera during a lunar surface simulation at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston in April of 1969, three months before he would actually walk on the Moon
Ralph Rene is another Moon hoaxer who gained prominence before most American were online, having published a book called MENSA Lectures, retitled The Last Skeptic Of Science after Mensa reportedly sued for using the name without permission. But it was Rene’s second book, published in 1994, that made him a folk hero of the Moon hoax community. Called NASA Mooned America!, the book, which is still available on Amazon, has many similarities to Kaysing’s work in the 1970s, but includes some even more outlandish claims.
One of the most damning pieces of evidence that Rene has? The astronauts don’t look sufficiently excited upon their return. Rene published this photo to show that the astronauts were actually embarrassed that they’d just lied to the American public:
(source. https://paleofuture.gizmodo.com/how-moon-landing-conspiracy-theories-spread-before-the-1835483705 )

Moon Landing at 50: A Guide to TV Specials Celebrating Apollo 11’s 1969 Feat

Multiple television channels including National Geographic, Smithsonian and Discovery will air special coverage throughout the month.

Multiple television channels including National Geographic, Smithsonian and Discovery will air special coverage throughout the month.

July 20, 2019, marks 50 years since Apollo 11 made its historic landing on the moon. Since then, Hollywood has taken creative liberties to celebrate the feat, part of the space race against the Soviet Union. Projects include the Damien Chazelle film First Man, Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey and Al Reinert’s For All MankindMoon landing enthusiasts (or disbelievers) can celebrate Apollo 11’s landing by watching such Hollywood projects, but multiple television networks including National Geographic, Smithsonian and Discovery will air their own special coverage throughout the month.The channels will commemorate the lunar landing with programs such as new episodes of Smithsonian’s Apollo’s Moon Shot, Chasing the Moon from PBS and BBC America’s Wonders of the Moon.Suit up and read on for a list of Apollo 11-inspired TV programs.July 5
Apollo: Back to the Moon (6 p.m. ET/PT, National Geographic)July 6
Lost Tapes, The: Apollo 13 (3 p.m., Smithsonian)

July 7
Apollo’s Moon Shot: Rocket Fever (6 a.m., Smithsonian)
Apollo’s Moon Shot: Triumph and Tragedy (7 a.m., Smithsonian)
Apollo’s Moon Shot: One Giant Leap (8 a.m., Smithsonian)
Apollo: Missions to the Moon (9 p.m., National Geographic)
The Day We Walked the Moon (9 p.m., Smithsonian)

July 8
The Armstrong Tapes (9 p.m., National Geographic)
Challenger Disaster: The Final Mission (10 p.m., National Geographic)
Chasing the Moon (9 p.m., PBS)

July 9
Apollo: Back to the Moon (9 p.m., National Geographic)

July 10
Nova: Back to the Moon (8 p.m., PBS)

July 14
Moon Landing: The Lost Tapes (10 p.m., History)

July 16
Nova: Apollo’s Daring Mission (10 p.m., PBS)

July 17
8 Days: to the Moon and Back (9 p.m., PBS)

July 18
When We Were Apollo (8:30 p.m., PBS)
Apollo’s Moon Shot: Brink of Disaster (9 p.m., Smithsonian)

July 19
NASA’s Giant Leaps: Past and Future – Celebrating Apollo 50th as We Go Forward to the Moon (1 p.m., Science)
Wonders of the Moon (10 p.m., BBC America)

July 20
Apollo: The Forgotten Films (8 p.m., Discovery)
Moon Landing Live (9 p.m., BBC America)
Confessions From Space: Apollo (10 p.m., Discovery)

(source: https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/live-feed/apollo-11-moon-landing-1969-tv-shows-celebrating-50th-anniversary-1222497 )

Apollo Zero – Full Moon Landing Documentary

Apollo Zero discusses issues related to NASA and its landing on the Moon. Various points are made to get to the truth and to question the arguments given by NASA in support of the expedition to Moon. Till today only three countries, US, China and Russia have succeeded in putting a man merely in Earth’s orbit. This suggests the difficulty of the task. The next point to ponder over is that the distance between moon and the earth is 240,000 miles. No country post the supposed landing on the moon ever claims to have gone more than 400 miles from Earth. The International Space Station orbits at 200 miles above Earth. It is clear that there exist a big difference between 240,000 miles and 400 miles. What one wonders why is it very difficult to cover more than 400 miles from Earth today when we had supposedly accomplished a 480,000 mile round trip in 1969. NASA further asserts that three men were loaded into a rocket, flew 240,000 miles to the moon and then achieved lunar orbit. They say the two astronauts flew 60 miles to the surface of the moon, in a vacuum and 1/6 Earth gravity. They stayed on the moon for up to three days in 250 degree heat and played golf as well. The answer provided to the important question of how they managed to stay in an unfriendly atmosphere for so long, they reply with the assistance of batteries. They then supposedly blasted off the surface of the moon and returned 240,000 miles back to Earth. They re-entered Earth’s atmosphere going 25,000 mph, and managed a safe landing with the aid of parachutes.

A NASA document actually started the Moon landing conspiracy

Kieran L. asks: Who started the conspiracy theory about the moon landing being fake?

Since the early 1970s conspiracy theorists have created ever more elaborate stories about how NASA faked the moon landings, much to the annoyance of the literal hundreds of thousands of people who worked in some capacity to make these missions a reality, and even more so to the men who were brave enough to sit in front of a massive controlled explosion, take a little jaunt through the soul crushing void of space in an extremely complex ship built by the lowest bidder, then get into another spacecraft whose ascent engine had never been test fired before they lit the candle, and all with the goal of exiting said ship with only a special suit between them and oblivion. And don’t even get the astronauts started on the paltry government salary they earned in doing all that and the hilarious lengths they had to go to to provide some semblance of a life insurance policy for their families should the worst happen during the missions. So who first got the idea that the moon landings were faked?

While it’s highly likely there were at least a few individuals here and there who doubted man could accomplish such a thing a little over a half century after the end of period in which humans were still hitching up covered wagons, the first to really get the moon landing hoax story going popularly was a writer named Bill Kaysing. How did he do it? Kaysing self-published a book in 1976 called We Never Went to the Moon: America’s Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle.

Released a few years after the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, Kaysing’s book popularly introduced some of the most well known talking points of moon landing deniers, such as that the astronauts should have been killed when they passed through the Van Allen radiation belts, noting the lack of stars in photographs, the missing blast crater below the lunar modules, etc. Beyond these, he also had some more, let’s say, “unusual” and occasionally offensive assertions which even the most ardent moon landing denier would probably rather distance themselves from.

Not exactly a best-seller, Kaysing’s book nonetheless laid the ground work for some of what would come after, with the idea further gaining steam in part thanks to the 1978 film Capricorn 1, which shows NASA faking a Mars landing and then going to any lengths to keep it a secret. As for the film, director Peter Hyams states he first got the idea for such a movie when musing over the Apollo 11 mission and thinking, “There was one event of really enormous importance that had almost no witnesses. And the only verification we have . . . came from a TV camera.”

Not an accurate statement in the slightest on the latter point, it nonetheless got the wheels turning and he ultimately developed a script based on this notion.

As to how Kaysing before him came to the conclusion that NASA faked the moon landings, the story, at least as Kaysing tells it, is that in the late 1950s he managed to view the results of a highly secretive internal study conducted by NASA on the feasibility of man successfully landing on the moon that concluded, in his own words: “That the chance of success was something like .0017 percent. In other words, it was hopeless.”

Kaysing doesn’t explain how NASA came up with such a precise figure given all the unknown variables at the time, nor why he put the qualifier “something like” followed by such an extremely exact number. He also did not name the report itself. And, in fact, as far as we can tell, NASA never conducted such an all encompassing study on the feasibility of a successful moon landing in the 1950s. Whether they did or not, we did find in our research looking for that report that NASA conducted a feasibility study on the proposed designs for several manned rockets immediately prior to Apollo program to decide which contractor to use. This, of course, has nothing to do with Kaysing, but we figured we’d mention it as we like to deal in facts and reading Kaysing’s various works has us feeling like we need to be cleansed a little by saying things that are actually true about NASA in this period.

In any event, Kaysing would later assert that he determined from this report that there’s no way NASA could have improved these 0.0017% odds in the time between the results of this supposed study and the moon landings about a decade later.

Now, if Kaysing was just some random guy shouting in the wind, it’s unlikely anyone would have listened to him. Every conspiracy theory origin story needs at least some shred of credibility from the person starting it to get the fire going. For Kaysing’s assertions about the moon landings, this comes in the form of the fact that for a brief period he worked for Rocketdyne, a company that made rockets for the Apollo program. Not an engineer or having any similar technical expertise whatsoever, Kaysing’s background was primarily in writing, earning an English degree from the University of Redlands, after which he naturally got a job making furniture.

As for the writing gig he landed with Rocketdyne, his job was initially as a technical writer starting in 1956 and he eventually worked his way up to head of technical publications. He finally quit in 1963, deciding he’d had enough of working for the man.

After quitting, to quote him, “the rat race”, in 1963 Kaysing traveled the country in a trailer with his family, earning his living writing books on a variety of topics from motorcycles to farming.

This brings us to 1969 when he, like most everyone else in the world with access to a TV watched the moon landing. While watching, Kaysing recalled the supposed NASA study he’d seen all those years ago, as well as that engineers he’d worked with at the time in the late 1950s claimed that while the technology existed to get the astronauts to the moon, getting them back was not yet possible. He later stated he further thought,

As late as 1967 three astronauts died in a horrendous fire on the launch pad. But as of ’69, we could suddenly perform manned flight upon manned flight? With complete success? It’s just against all statistical odds.

Despite often describing himself as “the fastest pen in the west”, it would take Kaysing several years to write the book that introduced one of the most enduring conspiracy theories to the world.

As for why NASA would bother with the charade, he claimed NASA worked in tandem with the Defence Intelligence Agency to fake the moon landings to one up those pesky Russians. While certainly good for the country if they could get away with it, the benefit to NASA itself was, of course, funding. Said Kaysing, “They — both NASA and Rocketdyne — wanted the money to keep pouring in.” As to how he knew this, he goes on “I’ve worked in aerospace long enough to know that’s their goal.”

So how did NASA do it? He claimed that the footage of the moon landing was actually filmed on a soundstage. When later asked where this soundstage was located, Kaysing confidently stated that it was located in Area 51. As he doesn’t seem to have ever given clear evidence as to how he knew this, we can only assume because it’s not a proper space related conspiracy theory if Area 51 isn’t mentioned.

Kaysing also claimed that the F-1 engines used were too unreliable so NASA instead put several B-1 rockets inside each of the F-1 engines. Of course, in truth these wouldn’t have been powerful enough to get the Saturn V into orbit even if its tanks were mostly empty. (And given the frost and ice clearly visible covering certain relevant parts of the Saturn V here, it’s apparent the tanks could not have been mostly empty). There’s also the little problem that the clusters of B-1s he described couldn’t have fit in the F-1 engine bells and you can see footage of the F-1 engines working as advertised, with no clusters of engines anywhere in sight. Nevertheless, despite these problems with his story, he did purport that the Saturn V was launched to space as shown (though at other times has claimed that in fact as soon as the rocket was out of sight it was simply ditched in the ocean and never made it to space). Stick with us here people, he changed his story a lot over the years.

Whatever the case, in all initial cases, he claims the astronauts were not aboard.

(And if you’re now wondering how the U.S. fooled the Soviets and other nations tracking the rockets during these missions, he claims a way to fake signals was devised, allowing for tracking stations on Earth to think the craft was headed for the moon and, critically, successfully fooling the Soviets who were indeed closely tracking the missions to the moon and back.)

So what did Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins do during the mission if they weren’t zipping around in space? In the first edition of his book, Kaysing claims that they flew to Las Vegas where they mostly hung out at strip clubs when they weren’t in their rooms on the 24th floor of the Sands Hotel.

We can’t make this stuff up, but apparently Kaysing can.

Kaysing goes on that at one point one of the trio got into a fistfight with someone in broad daylight over a stripper. Sadly Kaysing doesn’t reveal which of the men did this, nor how he knew about it, so we’re forced to assume it was Buzz Aldrin who is the only member of the three we definitely know actually has gotten in a fist fight.

In this case, in 2002, a 72 year old Buzz Aldrin punched Bart Sibrel who is a “we never landed on the moon” conspiracy theorist, “documentary” maker, and cab driver. Sibrel invited Aldrin to a hotel with Sibrel telling him he was making a children’s TV show on space. Once Aldrin arrived at the hotel, Sibrel pulled out a Bible and tried to get Aldrin to put his hand on it and swear that he had walked on the moon. Needless to say, Aldrin was pretty irritated at this point. Things got worse when Sibrel called Aldrin a “liar” and a “coward”, at which point Aldrin punched him.

As for his defense, Sibrel states, “When someone has gotten away with a crime, in my opinion, they deserve to be ambushed. I’m a journalist trying to get at the truth.” Unwilling to sway on what that truth is, however, Sibrel states, “I do know the moon landings were faked. I’d bet my life on it.” Not all is lost, however, because he states, “I know personally that Trump knows the moon landings are fake and he’s biding his time to reveal it at the end of this term, or at the end of his second term if he’s re-elected.” So, rest easy everyone, the truth will come out soon enough apparently.

In any event, going back to Kaysing’s book, he states that shortly before the astronauts were supposed to begin broadcasting from the moon, all three men arrived on a soundstage deep within the confines of Area 51 and ate cheese sandwiches. He also states that along with cheese sandwiches, NASA provided the men with buxom showgirls while at Area 51. Presumably this was the only way to pry the astronauts away from the strip clubs.

After eating the no doubt delicious sandwiches, Aldrin and Armstrong put on some space suits and pretended to walk across a fake moon set while reading out some, to quote Kaysing, “well-rehearsed lines” in a performance he called “not great” but “good enough”.

A description we personally feel is a little unfair considering it has apparently fooled seemingly every scientist on Earth then to now, including ones working for the nation directly competing with the US to land on the moon who would have relished any opportunity to even allege the whole thing was faked in a credible way, let alone prove it and embarrass the U.S. utterly in front of the whole world. But, unfortunately, as you might imagine, the Soviets at the time were monitoring the whole thing quite closely with their newfangled technology and so never got the opportunity to disprove the landings.

Amazingly Kaysing also claimed in his book that the fake moon landing footage was filmed live and that there was only “a seven second delay” between Armstrong and Aldrin’s performance and the broadcast the world was watching. Thus, had even a fly buzzed across the set, NASA would have only seconds to notice and cut the feed, lest such a mistake or inconsistency be noticed in the footage people would be watching for the rest of human history.

As for the splash down and recovery, he claims the astronauts were eventually put on a military cargo plane (a Lockheed C-5 Galaxy) and simply dropped from it in the capsule. As for how he knew this, he did provide a source for once, claiming that an airline pilot he talked to had seen the Apollo 15 module drop from a cargo plane. Who this pilot was, what airline he worked for, if he offered any evidence to support his claim, such as a flight log showing him piloting a plane in the area during the time of the splash down of Apollo 15, or even when he talked to said pilot, however, he fails to mention.

As for the moon rocks brought back, these were apparently meteorites found in Antarctica as well as some that were cleverly made in a NASA geology lab.

As to how NASA was able to keep the lid on things, despite nearly a half a million people working on the Apollo Program in some capacity, not just for NASA but countless independent organizations, he claims NASA simply only let those who needed to know the whole thing was a hoax know.

So following this reasoning that means all these scientists, engineers, etc. working on all the components and various facets of the mission were genuinely trying to make the moon landing happen, including knowing the requirements to make it happen and testing everything they made until it met those requirements… Meaning what was built and planned should have been capable of doing what the mission required…

That said, Kaysing admits a handful of people here and there would have had to know the whole thing was a sham, and thus NASA simply paid off those who could be paid off, promoted those who preferred that reward, threatened those who still wouldn’t go along, and murdered those who still resisted, which we’ll get into shortly.

The ridiculousness of many of these claims and how easily they crumple under the slightest bit of scrutiny is likely why in the 2002 re-release of his book Kaysing changed his story in various ways, including claiming that the engines on the Saturn V actually did work and that Collins, Aldrin, and Armstrong did go to space after all, instead of going to hang out with strippers in Vegas. He then states that all three men orbited the planet while pre-recorded, not live, footage was shown on Earth.

Despite, to put it mildly, straining credibility on pretty much everything he said from start to finish and him providing absurdly specific details, generally without bothering to provide any evidence whatsoever backing up these claims and changing those specific details frequently over time, Kaysing’s book and subsequent work nonetheless helped spawn the still thriving moon landing hoax conspiracy theory.

As for Kaysing, he didn’t stop there. He continued to sporadically come up with new allegations against NASA, including that the agency murdered the astronauts and teacher aboard the Challenger explosion. Why would they do this when the whole Christa McAuliffe thing was supposed to be a publicity stunt to get the public more interested in space travel, science, and what NASA was doing? According to Kaysing, “Christa McAuliffe, the only civilian and only woman aboard, refused to go along with the lie that you couldn’t see stars in space. So they blew her up, along with six other people, to keep that lie under wraps…”

Speaking of things that Kaysing said that are ridiculously easy to debunk with even a modicum of effort, we feel obligated to point out that Christa McAuliffe was not the only woman on board. NASA astronaut Judith Resnik was also killed in that tragedy.

Not stopping there, Kaysing also claimed the deaths of the Apollo 1 astronauts were intentional as one or more of the astronauts aboard was about to blow the whistle on the upcoming hoax plan. We feel obligated to point out here that, as previously mentioned, he also used this fire as evidence of NASA lacking expertise to get a man to the moon… Meaning according to Kaysing this fire was somehow both intentional to murder a few astronauts and also accidental owing to NASA’s incompetence.

Moving swiftly on, NASA officials also apparently had others killed, including safety inspector at North American Aviation Thomas Baron who wrote a report on NASA safety protocol violations after that tragic Apollo 1 fire.

It’s at this point, we should probably note that in the 1990s Kaysing decided to sue Jim Lovell. You see, in 1996 Lovell publicly stated “The guy is wacky. His position makes me feel angry. We spent a lot of time getting ready to go to the moon. We spent a lot of money, we took great risks, and it’s something everybody in this country should be proud of.”

Lovell also wrote to Kaysing asking him to “Tear up your manuscript and pursue a project that has some meaning. Leave a legacy you can be proud of, not some trash whose readers will doubt your sanity.”

Unwilling to stand for his good name being publicly besmirched, Kaysing naturally sued Lovell for defamation, though the case was eventually dismissed and nothing ever came of it.

Kaysing continued to assert that the moon landings were a hoax right up until his death in 2005, in between writing books on cookery, motorcycle safety, farming, taxes, survival, how to subsist on very little money, and travel guides, as well as making occasional appearances on such shows as Oprah expounding on his conspiracy theory work.

On the side he also promoted micro-housing as a solution for homeless people and ran a cat sanctuary called “FLOCK”, standing for “For the Love of Cats and Kittens”. So, yes, Kaysing was a man whose passions included micro housing, cats, survival, travel, living off almost nothing, and rapidly coming up with conspiracy theories. If only he’d been born later or the interwebs invented sooner, this man could have been an internet superstar.

Whatever the case, Kaysing’s death understandably garnered a mixed reaction from the scientific community, with few finding the ability to muster much sympathy for a man who accused NASA of murdering people.

Gone but not forgotten, Kaysing’s ideas have actually gained in popularity in recent years, particularly among younger generations according to various polls, such as one done by space consultant Mary Dittmar in 2005 showing that 25% of people 18-25 doubted man had ever walked on the moon.

This is all despite the fact that it’s never been easier to definitively debunk Kaysing’s various assertions. Not just via reading the countless explanations by scientists definitively addressing point by point every idea ever put forth by moon landing conspiracy theorists, there’s also the fact that there are literally pictures taken in the last decade showing clear evidence of some of the equipment sitting on the moon, including for the Apollo 11, 14, 15, 16, and 17 landing sites. Even in some cases showing the tracks left by the astronauts and the shadows from the flags planted themselves.

Naturally, moon landing deniers simply claim these photos too were faked, although why China, India, and Japan should cater to NASA on this one when they independently took pictures of their own verifying the moon landings is anybody’s guess.

We’ll have much, much more on all this in an upcoming article on How Do We Know Man Really Walked on the Moon?

This article originally appeared on Today I Found Out. Follow @TodayIFoundOut on Twitter.

( https://www.wearethemighty.com/history/nasa-document-moon-landing-conspiracy?rebelltitem=1#rebelltitem1 )

The folly of conspiracy theories

By Andrew Hobbs

For many, many years, ever since their happenings in 1969, the space landings have been the source of outrageous conspiracy theories and accusations, made by outrageous people and theorists, going out of their way to prove the moon landings never happened and, in some cases, they are completely absurd and clearly have not been thought through like they should have been. On the other hand, some of the theories and conspiracies these unique individuals have come up with seem like the theorist has spent their whole lives devoted to arguing that the moon landings never happened by completing crazy, unneeded calculations and arguments that, while they are impressive and persuasive at first glance, have some pretty obscene weaknesses.

In November 2018, Stephen Z. Nemo from Communities Digital News wrote an article regarding a poll run in Russia, The United States, and Britain. The poll says that of the American population, 7% of people do not believe that men landed on the moon in July 1969. That percentage seems relatively small, however, the poll was also conducted in Britain and Russia. In Britain, the poll states that nearly 52% of citizens do not believe that the United States put men on the moon, and that percentage climbs to 57% in Russia, that percentage including Vladimir Putin himself, Russia’s current president. What theories and conspiracies have been created and presented that, when looked into by the average citizen, persuade them that the moon landings were faked?

An example of one of these outrageous buffoons is the late Bill Kaysing, a scientist and person in charge of calculations at RocketDyne Rocket Engines, as well has holding security clearances with the United States Air Force and the Atomic energy Commission. Kaysing held this position up until a few years before the first manned landing on the moon when he resigned in 1963. Mr. Kaysing is seen as the father of the moon landing hoax theory, and is worshipped as a god in the eyes of moon landing conspiracy theorists. Kaysing wrote and published his book, We Never Went to the Moon: America’s Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle, in July 1976, less than 4 years after the last manned landing on the moon. In that book, Kaysing makes ridiculous claims attempting to back up his thesis, being that America wasted the money and never actually landed on the moon.

One of Kaysing’s biggest shortfalls in his claim, however, is that, despite having an entire 206 page book to fill with empty thought and evidence, he relies on one claim, and that is that America, nor the rest of humanity, possessed the technology needed to land men on the moon. Now, most people might look back and be like, “Yeah, that is a good point, we were not very technologically advanced in the 60s and 70s”, but let us look deeper into this empty claim. Humanity as a whole as advanced hundreds of thousands of miles in the last present decade in terms of technology and new ideas. Kaysing resigned in ‘63 and the first launch for a man to land on the moon was not until the middle of ‘69. Kaysing also relies on a calculation that he conducted in early 1962, where his math shows that there was a 0.02% chance of humans landing on the moon when they did, but how come that could not have changed? When Kaysing resigned in 1963, away went his security clearances, causing him to not ‘be in the loop’ any longer with what was going on, so how come a lot of different advancements could not have been made in that 6 year time frame? Or even the seven-year time frame from when he produced his original calculations of the probability of landing on the moon? While Kaysing was a brilliant man in his field, he did not quite think through his reasonings of why, “there is no way we landed on the moon,” when writing his books on the topic.

For an example of a theorist with too much time on their hands, presented to you is The author of ocii.com’s, Various other Apollo Image Anomalies, where the unnamed author and an internet alias named NiteCaty TRY to say that the moon landing footage, along with the pictures, were faked and were actually filmed/taken in a studio in Hollywood. Now, there are a lot of theorists that believe this statement is true, however this unnamed author and NiteCaty are truly, with all sincerity, a new breed of buffoon. This pair of moon hoax theorists take the reported angle of the horizon on the moon, (recorded by the International Space Station), and the angle of the horizon from Earth, and compare it to the pictures take of the sunrise by Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong while they were on the moon, and attempt to say that the horizon of the moon is actually 0.1 degrees off, stating that the moon landings, and the corresponding pictures, were faked. 0.1 degrees. An opinionated statement on what NiteCaty did in their calculations, and what the unnamed author double-checked, is not even necessary to explain how absolutely bogus their statements are. In their joint article, there are some other calculations that give slightly more leniency, however they are all done with the same process. The same bogus process.

Let us just assume that these two are onto something in their research and highly extensive calculations. In order to be able to make these kinds of calculations, they needed some background information, and some of the needed information was included in their findings, but not one of the biggest: they never took into account the curvature of the lens, or, the time of year that the pictures were taken. Those are arguably the two most important pieces to the research, and they are completely overlooked. If one does not already know, the cameras sent to the moon with the astronauts were, obviously, not the cameras that are available to the public today, but instead had a very large curvature on the lens, providing a larger field of view, allowing the astronauts to acquire larger photos in order for scientists to more easily analyze in the labs. Also, depending on the time of year, the Earth and the moon are in different positions in relation to each other, this alone, rendering the research done by these two theorists practically useless, and just like their predecessors work, an empty thought.

Now, while these are only two examples of the many, many, conspiracies and conspiracy theorists surrounding the moon landings from 1969 to 1972, they are perhaps the strongest in terms of claim on one hand, and who created it on the other. The basis of all of the theorists work, and all of their findings, seem to always be the same; that being, the largest pieces of evidence and/or pieces of their overall research, being left out and merely overlooked. It always seems that every conspiracy theorist is not a theorist at all, but merely a producer of empty thoughts and research, just hoping to find a way to argue on part of their behalf.

(source: https://www.tdn-net.com/opinion/editorials/60967/the-folly-of-conspiracy-theories )

Lewis Hamilton asks NASA astronaut whether the moon landings were faked

Yahoo News UK•March 19, 2019

Well, did they fake it?
In America, 21 million people believe that the moon landings were faked – despite pictures from NASA space telescopes clearly showing flags left by the Apollo missions.

This week, Formula One champion Lewis Hamilton asked astronaut Doug Hubley directly if the landings were faked.

He said, ‘I guess it’s a touchy point, but the big question is … there’s the theories that you didn’t land on the moon. So… why would people have that theory?’, Jalopnik reported.

Hurley said that it would been harder to fake the landings than to actually do them.

He said, ‘I’ve always maintained that it would’ve been harder to fake it and hide it.

‘It just takes one person to go spill. … I had people in my own family that thought we faked it and then they came and watch me go fly in space.’

The idea that the moon landings were faked actually came from rocket expert, Bill Kaysing, a technical writer who self-published a book called ‘We Never Went to the Moon: America’s Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle.’

Many of the supposed ‘giveaways’ still touted by moon truthers today come from Kaysing’s book, according to author C Stuart Hardwick.

Hardwick says, ‘The first person to give real voice to moon hoax conspira-nonesense was Bill Kaysing, a technical writer who had worked for Rocketdyne until 1963.

‘Why? It’s unclear. He was not obviously insane, but he was obviously unqualified to express the opinions he was expressing. My guess is, technical writing with objective criteria didn’t suit him, and pretending expertise to a bunch of ignorant sycophants fuelled his ego.

Kaysing misused his ‘expertise’ as a technical writer to create the impression the missions were faked, Hardwick says – but ignored any facts that got in the way.

Hardwick says, ‘He made a large number of idiotic claims that in fact only demonstrated his ignorance and paranoia. For example, he claimed (without evidence) that the mighty F1 engine was wholly unreliable and so NASA was forced to cover that up by welding clusters of proven B-1 engines inside the F1 engine bell in order to simulate a lunar mission by launching a (presumably mostly empty) Saturn V that could never leave orbit.

‘The F1 engines from some of the missions he was talking about (including Apollo 11) have been recovered from the sea floor, and are clearly unmodified F1 engines.’

“Apollo 11”: New doc features never-before-seen footage of moon mission

The first manned trip to the moon was a milestone in human history. Now, a brand new documentary is taking people aboard the Apollo 11 mission like never before. “Apollo 11” features never-before-seen footage drawn from NASA’s archives. Director and editor Todd Douglas Miller joins “CBS This Morning: Saturday” to discuss the making of the film.

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Delivered by Norah O’Donnell, Gayle King, John Dickerson, and Bianna Golodryga, “CBS This Morning” offers a thoughtful, substantive and insightful source of news and information to a daily audience of 3 million viewers. The Emmy Award-winning broadcast presents a mix of daily news, coverage of developing stories of national and global significance, and interviews with leading figures in politics, business and entertainment. Check local listings for “CBS This Morning” broadcast times.

Damien Chazelle’s ‘First Man’ to open Venice Film Festival

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/6f/FirstManCover.jpgDamien Chazelle’s space race drama First Man will open the 75th Venice Film Festival, it has been confirmed.

Chazelle returns to the Lido after La La Land opened Venice in 2016 and kicked off a triumphant awards season that saw him become the youngest winner of the best directing Oscar.

First Man will have its world premiere on August 29 in the Sala Grande at the Palazzo del Cinema on the Lido di Venezia. It will be in competition at the festival.

Ryan Gosling stars as Neil Armstrong, the former US Navy test pilot who became the first man to walk on the moon in 1969, marking the climax of the Apollo 11 mission and closing an intense chapter in the space race between the US and the Soviet Union.

Starring alongside Gosling are Claire Foy as his wife, Jason Clarke, Kyle Chandler, and Ciarin Hinds.

Universal will open First Man in the US and UK on October 12. The 75th annual Venice Film Festival will take place from August 29-September 8.

Chazelle said: “I am humbled by Venice’s invitation and am thrilled to return. It feels especially poignant to share this news so close to the moon landing’s anniversary. I eagerly look forward to bringing the film to the festival.”

(Source: https://www.screendaily.com/news/damien-chazelles-first-man-to-open-venice-film-festival/5131022.article )

Here’s where the moon landing hoax conspiracy came from (and why it’s rubbish)

By Rob Waugh, Monday  23 Jul 2018

In America, 21 million people believe that the moon landings were faked – despite pictures from Earth-bound telescopes clearly showing flags left by the Apollo missions.

Moon hoax conspiracy theories are often the ‘entry level’ conspiracy which guides people to the really weird ‘hard stuff’ like believing the Earth is flat.

But where did the idea come from? Here’s where the moon landing hoax conspiracy came from (and why it’s rubbish)

Was it all faked? (Picture Getty)

We can blame one rocket expert, Bill Kaysing, a technical writer who self-published a book called ‘We Never Went to the Moon: America’s Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle.’

Many of the supposed ‘giveaways’ still touted by moon truthers today come from Kaysing’s book, according to author C Stuart Hardwick, writing on Quora.

Hardwick says, ‘The first person to give real voice to moon hoax conspira-nonesense was Bill Kaysing, a technical writer who had worked for Rocketdyne until 1963.

‘Why? It’s unclear. He was not obviously insane, but he was obviously unqualified to express the opinions he was expressing. My guess is, technical writing with objective criteria didn’t suit him, and pretending expertise to a bunch of ignorant sycophants fuelled his ego. - FILE PHOTO 16JUL69 - On July 16, 1969, American astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, and Michael Collins lifted off from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, in the mammoth-sized Saturn V rocket on their way to the moon during the Apollo 11 mission. Cmdr. Armstrong and pilot Aldrin landed the spacecraft, Eagle, on the moon's Sea of Tranquility on July 20. The 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission is July 16 (launch) and July 20 (landing on the moon). - PBEAHULTGAK

Much of the book centred on the rockets used in the launch (Getty)

Kaysing misused his ‘expertise’ as a technical writer to create the impression the missions were faked, Hardwick says – but ignored any facts that got in the way.

Hardwick says, ‘He made a large number of idiotic claims that in fact only demonstrated his ignorance and paranoia.

- FILE PICTURE 16JUL69 - The Apollo 11 Saturn V space vehicle lifted off with Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin E."Buzz" Aldrin, Jr., aboard at 9:32 a.m. EDT, July 16, 1969, from the Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39A. The 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission is July 16 (launch) and July 20 (landing on the moon). - PBEAHULTGAL
No, it wasn’t faked (Getty)

‘For example, he claimed (without evidence) that the mighty F1 engine was wholly unreliable and so NASA was forced to cover that up by welding clusters of proven B-1 engines inside the F1 engine bell in order to simulate a lunar mission by launching a (presumably mostly empty) Saturn V that could never leave orbit.

‘The F1 engines from some of the missions he was talking about (including Apollo 11) have been recovered from the sea floor, and are clearly unmodified F1 engines.’

(Souece. https://metro.co.uk/2018/07/23/moon-landing-hoax-conspiracy-came-rubbish-7747784/ )

The housing shortage in California is creating a state of crisis

written by Laurie Edwards-Tate Jul 10, 2018

SAN DIEGO. California, with its attractive cities such as San Francisco and Hollywood, plentiful parklands, expansive Pacific Ocean and desirable year-round climate — can mesmerize vacationers and snowbirds alike. Wishing to escape harsh weather conditions or simply seeking a change of pace, the Golden State soon becomes a serious consideration for many who are desiring to relocate.
California dreaming? Not so much if you consider the state’s ginormous housing shortage. That shortage is so bad in California that it is creating a state of crisis.

THE HIGH COST OF HOUSING IN CALIFORNIA

But what is oftentimes overlooked by California dreamers is the state’s high cost of living. Overlooked as well: the high prices for housing and apartment rentals, some of the highest in the nation.
California wannabes might be determined to find a way to live the California lifestyle. But they are very possibly ignoring the underlying facts influencing what it might cost them to qualify to buy or to rent

The housing shortage in California is creating a state of crisis.

LOW HOUSING SUPPLY CAUSES ESCALATING HOME PRICES

For those who currently own a home, the increase in housing values is highly desirable. But for first-time home buyers, however, the California real estate market makes it nearly impossible for many to afford a home. Only around 29 percent of Californians today can afford a median priced home of about $518,500.00.

Qualifying for a median priced home requires a total household annual income of $81,690.00. The estimated monthly loan payment is $2,720.00 (depending upon loan terms, down payment and the effective interest rate), according to the California Realtors Association.

In 2017, California Housing and Community Development Department estimated 3.5 million new homes would be needed to meet population growth.

SOLVING THE SHORTAGE OF CALIFORNIA HOUSING

The California Housing and Community Development Department estimates that the state needs 180,000 new homes each year to keep pace with housing demand. It follows that California should be a builder’s paradise. With millions of new homes needed over the next 20 years, the building industry could also be a positive source for creating new jobs.

However, the supply of new housing is falling dangerously short. The reasons for this are many.

For example, in 2017, approximately 110,000-115,000 building permits were requested or granted permitting the building of new California homes, according to the Construction Industry Research Board. However, estimates report approximately 70,000 fewer homes get built each year than are actually needed.

An a recent interview with a member of the California Building Industry Association, revealed a surprising multitude of barriers which prevent building badly needed new homes in California. This is especially true for those within a range of affordability.

THE COST OF OVER-REGULATION AND OTHER BARRIERS

California’s current list of regulatory barriers and cost-drivers includes

Slow permit processing
California Environmental Quality Act
Law suits from private citizens
Lumber shortages creating increasing costs
Rising materials costs
Increasing labor costs

( Source: https://www.commdiginews.com/business-2/housing-shortage-crisis-california-104294/ )